What is Esperanto?
Esperanto is a constructed language, i.e. someone sat down and invented it — L. L. Zamenhof, a Jewish optometrist and polyglot born in an area of Russia which is now Poland. He believed the world could be united through a common, international auxiliary language (IAL), which should be politically- and culturally-neutral before people would willingly adopt it. He decided no good candidate language existed, so set out to invent a new one, ultimately based on his knowledge of Russian, Yiddish (natively spoken); Polish, German, French, Hebrew, Belarusian, English, Volapük (acquired); and Latin, Greek, Aramaic (studied academically).
Zamenhof began work on his international language no later than 1878, and first publicized it in 1887 under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto ("Dr. Hopeful", lit. one who hopes). Having not named it anything other than "the international language", it came to be known itself as "Esperanto". Zamenhof with the earliest adopters of this proposal continued to translate works, publish journals, and refine the language, culminating in the first all-Esperanto meetup in 1905 — the Universal Congress, held that year in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France — where several hundred Esperantists ratified the Fundamento de Esperanto, an authoritative baseline for the language. There has been a Universal Congress in different countries every year since, except none 1916—1919 (because of World War Ⅰ), none 1940—1946 (because of World War Ⅱ), and only virtually in 2020, 2021 (because of the COVID-19 pandemic).
How do I learn Esperanto?
- Explore some courses; find one or two that work for you:
- Pick a multilingual dictionary to get started:
- Find a community to practice with:
- Check reference material frequently:
- Eventually, once you're comfortable reading Esperanto, start using Esperanto-only resources:
How long does it take to learn Esperanto?
It is generally assumed that Esperanto takes less time to learn than natural languages. The US Foreign Service Institute suggests that native English speakers can acquire familiar natural languages in 600-750 "class hours". That's 24-30 weeks at 25 hours per week, or roughly 3~4 years at 30 minutes per day. Esperanto should therefore take less time than that, but how much less, has not been rigorously measured. Some estimate 200 hours of study.
Different speakers report having taken anywhere from several weeks to several years. It depends on multiple factors:
- which languages you already speak
- how many languages you've acquired
- time spent practicing per week
- personal motivation, desire
How do I type Esperanto letters?
When it's impracticable to write Esperanto's unique letters (ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ), officially you may write instead ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, u — the "H-system".
The H-system has its flaws,
- Ambiguity in combined words: is senchava "sen'ĉava" or "senc'hava"? (Answer: It's the latter; "ĉav-" is not a root.)
- Inconsistency & lack of fidelity: ŭ is to be rendered as "u", making it indistinct from every other u. This doesn't technically cause any ambiguity, as there are no minimal pairs between u and ŭ, but it affects pronunciation (u is syllabic, ŭ is not). Worse yet, many people misunderstand the H-system and write "uh" in place of ŭ.
- Poor alphabetization: The "hatted" letter always follows the bare letter alphabetically, but computers will place all ĉ-words in the middle of all c-words if rendered with "ch" (and so on for the other letters).
- Poor readability: While "ch", "sh", even "gh" look acceptable to most users of the Latin alphabet, "jh" and especially "hh" are more egregious. See: ehhoshangho chiujhaude
There are solutions to write the true Esperanto letters on any platform, but they require setup. Some of these convert H-system or X-system text to the proper letters in real-time, hence the explanation above.
Most distributions ship an Esperanto keyboard layout by default with xkb. Rejoice!
You'll need to download a third-party keyboard that supports Esperanto. On Android you have two options:
You'll need to download a third-party keyboard that supports Esperanto. Gboard is available on iOS, however, it does not support Esperanto on this platform. Therefore the only viable option is SwiftKey.
What's the -n at the end of some words?
This is known as the accusative. The accusative is a grammatical case, and a grammatical case is just a marker on a word to change its role in a sentence. For example, the English apostrophe-'s is actually a case marker, to show possession. But what does the accusative show?
- The direct object of a verb or phrase. (e.g. "I ate the apple" versus "The apple ate me")
- Direction/movement towards something. (e.g. "They're going home")
- Measurement. (e.g. "The track is 100 meters long")
- Time. (e.g. "I'll go there Monday")
The accusative can stand-in for the preposition je, which means it's also used for:
In Esperanto, the underlined words take the ending -n. English doesn't have an accusative case for these things because it conveys them through word order, but Esperanto was designed to allow free word order, and so benefits from the accusative.
The accusative may occur more than once in a sentence; for example, in a sentence like "I'll do it next week", "it" is the direct object of "do" and "next week" is the time at which it will happen, so both may receive the accusative -n. The preposition je can be used instead, so for clarity, speakers may place one term in the accusative (typically the object) and the other after je.
What is the "direct object"?
The direct object of a phrase is the thing being affected by the verb/action. The direct object is underlined in these examples:
- "She's playing a game."
- "I'm drinking a soda."
- "They eat crab every Thursday."
- "Do you want anything for your birthday?"
English sentences are subject-verb-object, so the object is typically the thing that comes after the verb. However, Not all verbs have a direct object. This is known as transitivity. A verb is transitive if it has a direct object, and intransitive if not. Some example sentences with intransitive verbs and therefore no objects:
- "That creature is an alien!"
- "That seems like a bad idea."
- "We're going to the store later."
- "He's sitting on that chair."
Why isn't "alien" an object in example №1? To put it another way, why is to be an intransitive verb? This is because the thing on the "right side" of the verb relates back to the subject of the sentence — "that creature" and "alien" are the same entity. But when the subject is also the object of a transitive verb, that's when we use a reflexive pronoun, like myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, themselves.
What about examples №3 and 4? Why aren't "store" and "chair" objects? As a rule of thumb, it's because they're linked by prepositions — to and on. You can't say "We're going the store later" or "He's sitting that chair".
Bear in mind, there are also such things as indirect objects — usually the recipient of an action. In a sentence like "I gave Kaylin my sandwich", Kaylin is the indirect object while sandwich is the direct object (the thing being given). In Esperanto the indirect object almost always follows the preposition al ("to"): "I gave to Kaylin my sandwich."
How am I supposed to pronounce these words?
Esperanto is phonemic, which means that each letter has exactly one sound to distinguish it from other letters. Furthermore, letters are never silent; for example, the 'p' is not silent in psikologio as it is in the English word psychology. Because of this, it is often said that Esperanto pronunciation has no exceptions.
This does not mean that some variation isn't allowed. For instance, the letter r is pronounced very differently between world languages, as demonstrated below, most of which are generally acceptable for Esperanto, although the "trill" and "tap" are most preferred by speakers (the two listed by Spanish & Russian).
Another example: The 'g' in "ng" is never silent, but you may still pronounce the 'n' further back when it suits you, like in the word "finger".
Never forget to place stress on the second-last syllable of each word!
How does gender work in Esperanto?
Unlike French, German, and Russian, there is no grammatical gender in Esperanto. For example, instead of -o being a masculine ending and -a being a feminine ending, these are the noun and adjective endings respectively, regardless of gender. However, because of this, names aren't always fully Esperantized; after all, should Maria become "Mario"?
Esperanto was invented in the 19th century, and thus some traditional assumptions about gender were made. There are gendered pronouns (li "he", ŝi "her", ĝi "it"), and speakers typically use li by default for people of unspecified gender if they are accustomed to doing so in their native language. Some speakers argue that ĝi is perfectly usable for referring to people gender-neutrally, while others feel it offensive because of how the pronoun it is traditionally used for objects and animals. Outside of theory, ĝi is seldom used for humans besides babies, unless one elects that pronoun for themselves.
Several new pronouns have been proposed over the decades, with perhaps ri being the most popular. It was first recorded in 1976 as a gender-neutral pronoun. Lately it is also the pronoun of choice for many nonbinary speakers.
Ri is still contested by the Esperanto community because of its lack of official status with the Akademio, ambiguous usage (is it truly gender-neutral or is it nonbinary?), the phonetic similarity to li, the lack of decidedly-better alternatives, and so on. It is, however, widely-recognized by nearly all speakers.
Some roots are inherently masculine. In the beginning, all words for living beings were regarded as masculine, and can be made feminine with the suffix -ino. Traditionally vir-, the root for "man", was prefixed to a word to emphasize masculinity (e.g. "virbovo" means "bull"). The prefix ge- is used with plural words to refer to groups with different genders, e.g. gepatroj for "parents". Nowadays nearly every word is assumed to be gender-neutral unless the root itself is gendered, making these affixes mostly superfluous. We're down to the following roots:
- viro (man)
- sinjoro (mister, sir)
- knabo (boy)
- fraŭlo (bachelor)
- patro (father)
- filo (son)
- frato (brother)
- avo (grandfather)
- nepo (grandson)
- nevo (nephew)
- onklo (uncle)
- kuzo (cousin)
- fianĉo (fiancé)
- edzo (husband)
- reĝo (king)
- princo (prince)
- duko (duke)
- grafo (earl, count)
- damo (lady, dame)
- lesbanino (lesbian)
From every masculine root listed here is a feminine counterpart formed with -ino: virino for "woman", patrino for "mother", reĝino for "queen", etc. For each feminine root, there is already a separate gender-neutral root (damo, lordo; lesbanino, gejo).
-iĉo (masculine) and -ipo (nonbinary) are two proposed suffixes for symmetry with -ino which have gained some traction. Esperanto also officially provides ~ĉjo (masculine) and ~njo (feminine) as suffixes to form nicknames and affectionate names with, e.g. paĉjo for "dad", panjo for "mom", Aleĉjo or Alenjo for "Alex" from "Alexander" or "Alexandria", etc. From this follows the proposed ~pjo for nonbinary persons.
Are there swear words in Esperanto?
Esperanto wasn't designed with dedicated swear words, but several have emerged over time, in part thanks to certain authors proliferating these words through famous works like Sekretaj sonetoj and Knedu min, Sinjorino: tabuaj kaj insultaj esprimoj en Esperanto. Swear words are loaned from an even variety of languages, including Spanish, Italian, German, and Russian, but phrases are adapted to fit Esperanto's grammar.
Esperantists generally distinguish between sacrality (undirected expressions of anger, typically calling upon God or religious powers — "Damn!") and obscenity (indecent or taboo words, typically sexual or bodily in nature). The most common respective examples are the use of the word diabla ("devilish") for something damnable, and fek ("feces") as a general expletive (comparable to the German word Scheiße).
Esperanto's core vocabulary does feature a handful of pejoratives — fi for shameful/evil things, aĉ for awful/useless things, fuŝ for a botch/screw-up — as well as the interjection ve for discontent (as in "oy vey"). These are often the basis for combined words with more pointed meanings.
- "Ve…" — "Geez…"
- "Diable!" — "Damn!"
- "Fek!" — "S#!%!"
- "Fek al vi!" — "F&#% you!" (lit. "S#!% to you!")
- "Kio je fek?" — "What the f&#%?" (lit. "What by s#!%?", think "What in tarnation?")
- "Fi al tiu diabla sorĉisto!" — "Shame on that damned wizard!"
- Wiktionary — Esperanto vulgarities
- Wikipedia — Esperanto profanity
- StackExchange — Cursing and swearing in Esperanto
- PDF — Tabuaj Vortoj en Esperanto
What's this about crocodiles?
To crocodile is to speak another language in an Esperanto setting. The phrase "ne krokodilu" ("do not crocodile") is widely used to signal that a conversation should be Esperanto-only, and to encourage one another not to fall back on other languages.
It is not known where this term originated, but there are a few possible explanations:
- From the fact that crocodiles' extremely large mouths make an apt comparison for carelessly flapping one's jaws without consideration.
- Ferrari, an Esperantist in Paris in the 1930s, would comment Kion volas tiuj krokodiloj? (What do those crocodiles want?) when noisy non-Esperantists entered the cafe where he was speaking Esperanto with friends.
- Students of Andreo Cseh. When Cseh taught Esperanto, students were only allowed to speak their native language when they were holding a wooden crocodile he always brought with him.
Similar meanings have been ascribed to other reptile names, but these are not widely recognized.
Who's in charge of Esperanto?
No-one. It is influenced first and foremost by the speakers. However, there are some authorities that are generally respected by the Esperanto community and used for guidance.
The Fundamento de Esperanto
Considerably the most important document in Esperanto history, this was presented and accepted in 1905 as the foundation of the language, which shall never be changed. It features a 1670-word preamble written in Esperanto, a 16-rule grammar presented in French, English, German, Russian, and Polish, an exercise book in 42 parts, and the Universal Dictionary — 2,636 words translated between Esperanto, and the five aforementioned languages.
The Fundamento grammar is open-ended and not comprehensive, which was intentional as to give Esperantists room to grow and evolve the language. Esperantists have always been free to add words and rules to the language, just not to change those already present in the Fundamento.
Unfortunately, the Fundamento's status is more complicated than that. It is an imperfect book with a number of translation errors, which means it cannot truly be followed "to a T". Several words' meanings have shifted over time — never enough to confuse period works, but enough to argue that colloquial usage takes precedence over the most authoritative document in Esperanto culture. Some speakers also argue that, morally, the Fundamento should be ignored if it ever prohibits the language from changing in an organic way. Other speakers firmly believe the Fundamento to be inviolable.
The Akademio de Esperanto
The Fundamento was produced with a language academy in mind — today the Akademio — to guide and officialize any additions to Esperanto beyond the Fundamento. Anything approved or recognized by the Akademio is considered "official"; however, this doesn't make much difference, as "unofficial" things are typically embraced and sometimes even regarded equally.
In essence, the Akademio is descriptivist, not prescriptivist. They virtually never tell the Esperanto community what they can/can't do; rather they observe what the Esperanto community does, and make the most common words, patterns, behaviors "official".
Third-party resources, organizations
Two of the most important Esperanto resources are PIV and PMEG, which both happen to be written only in Esperanto, giving them some credence as the audience is not beginners but rather adept Esperantists. More importantly, they're filled with real-world examples and citations which reflect observed usage. They aren't infallible, but Esperantists place a high degree of faith in the veracity of these resources, often citing them directly as justification for certain behavior.
There are also organizations such as the UEA, TEJO, E@I, and Libera Folio ("Free Folio"), which are responsible for many of the most influential periodicals, projects, and gatherings among Esperantists; thus they are a fairly consistent source of model Esperanto content.
How many words does Esperanto have?
There are 5,259 official roots and affixes.
Like with any language, there's a much smaller set of words that are needed to be functional, or to "read the newspaper". The Akademio maintains a list of 2,534 elements that they consider most important to teach. This list is divided into nine groups, which one might learn roughly one after another, and you can speak productively before learning every single group:
|Baza Radikaro Oficiala|
One analysis found that 467 morphemes are enough to yield 95% comprehension in Esperanto, whereas roughly 2,000 words are necessary in most Indo-European languages.
On the other hand, Esperanto is filled with unofficial words, technical terms, loans, and so on. Furthermore, the majority of words are just combinations of existing roots. As an upper estimate, the dictionary PIV's 2005 edition appears to have 16,780 gloss entries and 46,890 total entries. Compare with some other-language dictionaries:
|511,282||Korean||Standard Korean Language Dictionary|
|470,000||English||Webster's Third New International Dictionary and Addenda|
|378,103||Chinese||Hanyu Da Cidian|
|135,000||French||Trésor de la Langue Française informatisé|
|93,000||Spanish||Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española|
|39,589||Latin||Oxford Latin Dictionary|
What languages did Esperanto's words come from?
According to this StackExchange answer by miĥaŭ, out of 3,983 words:
perc. num. lang. ====================================== 80.69% 3214 French+Italian+Latin (Romance) 65.43% 2606 English+German+Yiddish (Germanic) 37.79% 1505 Russian+Lithuanian+Polish (Slavic)
Values exceed 100% because a word can be the same across multiple languages. Individual words are loaned from several other languages, for example kaj ("and") from Ancient Greek και.
Is Esperanto a European language?
As shown above, Esperanto words come almost exclusively from European languages, except for modern-day loans (e.g. cunamo from Japanese "tsunami"). This doubtlessly gives speakers of European languages an advantage; an unfortunate strike on Esperanto's aspired neutrality.
Esperanto's grammar, on the other hand, is not especially European. Claude Piron, late Swiss psychologist, translator, author, and famed Esperantist, concisely argued that Esperanto is not an innately Western language, drawing parallels with Semitic languages like Arabic and Hebrew, and Chinese languages. To summarize his points:
- A majority of words are formed through the combination of fewer roots. The Esperanto translation of the Hebrew Bible has roughly as many roots as the original, unlike translations in several "western languages" (presumably English, French, etc.), which use far more.
- Plurals are quite regular in Persian — -ha — as in Esperanto — -j.
- There are no such things as irregular verbs — unthinkable in many western languages but a reality in "Chinese, Vietnamese, and… Esperanto."
- Related words are derived in a predictable manner, unlike English, but like Chinese. Pronouns are an apt example: I, me, my, mine, versus Esperanto's mi, min, mia, la mia, and Mandarin's 我, 我的. These endings are the same across not just pronouns but all words (e.g. -a/的 is the adjectival ending).
How many people speak Esperanto?
- It's complicated; this StackExchange thread covers the gist of it.
- No less than 2 million, possibly 3.5m people have tried the Esperanto course through Duolingo.
- According to one excellent analysis performed by a statistician, there should be between 31,460 and 183,420 involved speakers — but probably closer to 62,983.9.
Compare with these rough figures for some other languages:
Where are Esperanto speakers found?
Esperantists are found in more countries than not, according to the Esperantujo Directory, although it's not a good indicator of quantity with only a couple thousand registered users.
Data collected in 2020 from the UEA's website lists the number of paid UEA members by country (the US is "usono"):
392 germanio 354 francio 295 brazilo 262 japanio 246 usono 142 chinio 140 nederlando 115 hispanio 105 italio 103 belgio 91 finnlando 89 koreio 89 britio 83 pollando 80 rusio 79 svislando 74 svedio 70 danio 63 kanado 58 chehio 54 meksiko 50 kongolando 50 hungario 38 israelo 36 ukrainio 36 benino 33 austrio 31 kubo 30 hinda_unio 29 bulgario 29 australio 28 burundio 27 vjetnamio 27 rumanio 27 nepalo 26 norvegio 25 slovakio 25 kroatio 25 argentino 24 nikaragvo 24 litovio 24 irano 23 pakistano 22 serbio 21 senegalio 20 togolando 16 kolombio 15 indonezio 14 urugvajo 14 turkio 14 portugalio 14 latvio 13 slovenio 13 novzelando 13 luksemburgo 13 bosnio 12 estonio 11 albanio 10 tanzanio 10 islando 10 irlando 10 dominika_resp 9 nigherio 9 mongolio 9 chilio 9 armenio 8 grekio 7 peruo 7 madagaskaro 6 uzbekio 6 suda_afriko 5 orienta_timoro 5 belorusio 5 algherio 4 tajlando 4 nordmakedonio 4 maroko 4 kostariko 4 kazahhio 4 kameruno 4 ganao 3 tunizio 3 tajvano 3 kongolo 3 kartvelio 3 chado 3 angolo 2 venezuelo 2 ugando 2 salvadoro 2 ruando 2 novkaledonio 2 nighero 2 malto 2 malio 2 komoroj 2 kambogho 2 honkongo 2 gvatemalo 2 filipinoj 2 etiopio 2 bolivio 1 vatikano 1 trinidado 1 taghikio 1 sirio 1 singapuro 1 paragvajo 1 palestino 1 malajzio 1 kipro 1 kenjo 1 honduro 1 ghibraltaro 1 gabono 1 ekvadoro 1 egiptio 1 eburbordo 1 centr_afrika_resp 1 burkina_faso 1 brunejo 1 birmo 1 belizo 1 barejno 1 bangladesho
The following countries have had the listed number of paid UEA members since the year 2000 but did not have any paid members in 2020:
*18 srilanko *6 moldavio *6 malavio *6 jordanio *6 azerbajghano *5 reunio *5 libano *4 zimbabvo *4 arabaj_emirejoj *2 sauda_arabio *2 papuo *2 kuvajto *2 afganio *1 zambio *1 svazilando *1 samoo *1 panamo *1 mozambiko *1 montenegro *1 mauritanio *1 martiniko *1 lihhtenshtejno *1 laoso *1 kirgizio *1 kataro *1 haitio *1 gvadelupo *1 gujano *1 bahamoj
Is there any LGBT in Esperanto?
Yes — it's known as GLAT.
TerSISO.net is a comprehensive source of Esperanto terminology regarding sexual identity & orientation and adjacent topics.
Has Esperanto ever been officially recognized?
- In 1924, the League of Nations recommended its member states to implement Esperanto as an auxiliary language.
- The United Nations, specifically UNESCO, passed a resolution in 1954 officially recognizing Esperanto as an international auxiliary language and recommending the Director-General of UNESCO to follow its development. The Director-General in 1977 visited that year's Esperanto Universal Congress, and in 1985, UNESCO passed another resolution that member states should encourage the teaching of Esperanto.
- The Senate of Brazil in 2009 passed a bill that would make Esperanto an optional part of curriculum in public schools, mandatory if in demand amongst students. As of 2015 it's still under consideration by the Chamber of Deputies.
- Various state-operated Chinese media publish content in Esperanto, including China Radio International (regularly from 1964 to 2021, still maintains EO web interface), china.org.cn, and for the internet magazine El Popola Ĉinio.
- In Hungary, schools widely offer Esperanto courses for foreign language credit.
Is there an Esperanto fluency test?
Yes — the UEA-KER exams. These are based on CEFR, the European framework for assessing language proficiency based on six levels. At the moment, Esperanto fluency tests are only offered for levels B1, B2, and C1, while the C2 exam is actively being developed.
From 2008 to 2021, the UEA-KER exams were produced in collaboration with the Hungarian Centre for Foreign Languages, and offered only in-person to a handful of locations in various countries. From 2022, the UEA is taking on full development of the exams and is prepared to launch an online version.
Old sample exam for B1, B2, C1.
What do I use Esperanto for?
- Connect with other Esperantists through dedicated platforms like Mia Vivo!
- Look for opportunities to meet other Esperantists, online and in-person, per the Eventa Servo!
- Travel the world with one language via the Pasporta Servo!
- Help train AI voice recognition through Mozilla's Common Voice project!
- Music! There are over 1,300 Esperanto songs on Spotify (>80 hours of content), and several live concert videos as well.
- Videos! Not only are there numerous YouTube channels dedicated to Esperanto…
- The curator Ludoj en Esperanto tracks a number of games on Steam with known Esperanto support, and reviews the translation quality.
- Other games like VVVVVV (pending) and Baba Is You have official Esperanto translations, and games like Minecraft (Java Edition) ship with community-made translations.
- There are also renowned original Esperanto games, such as the visual novels The Expression Amrilato and Distant Memoraĵo.
- Several games do not support Esperanto, but still have followings in the Esperanto community, such as Among Us ("Trompisto"), Sketchful.io ("Skribaĉo"), Left 4 Dead 2 and Valorant.
Radio! (Abridged from esperanto.net):
- Muzaiko, running 24/7 with music, interviews and reports
- 3ZZZradio, a weekly Esperanto broadcast out of Australia
- Varsovia Vento ("Warsaw Wind"), a series of podcasts out of Poland
- Radio Vatikana, operating thrice per week out of the Vatican
- Radio Havano Kubo, which broadcasts in Esperanto nearly every week, discussing both Cuba and Esperanto in general
- UEA.Facila, articles presented in easy Esperanto
- kern.punkto ("Core point"), a podcast series which dives deep into a complex subject in one-hour episodes
- Recurring film festivals with cash prizes!
- Periodical magazines!
Read worldwide news sourced from all over the world (abridged from
- Libera Folio, original, independent journalism exclusively in Esperanto
- Le Monde Diplomatique, a French journal published also in hand-translated Esperanto
- Pola Retradio, a Polish news station which offers programs in Esperanto, both in written and spoken form
- Global Voices — "Citizen media stories from around the world"
- China Radio International and El Popola Ĉinio, official Chinese media in Esperanto
- La Ondo de Esperanto, published by Sezonoj ("Seasons"), a Russian outlet with several decades of Esperanto publishing history
- Scienca Revuo, a periodical focused on scientific discoveries
- LabourStart, "For news from a trade-unionist point of view"
- Participate in a translation project! There are many to choose from; here's just a few:
- Design other languages! Esperanto is the starting point for several reform projects such as Ido and Archaicam Esperantom; some of the other most well-received conlangs were designed by Esperantists, like Toki Pona; and Esperanto is a working language for much of the conlang community.
- Explore over a century of original literature, starting with the Baza Legolisto, a list of 32 prosaic and 32 poetic must-reads.
- Read and analyze many more works from Esperanto history through Tekstaro, the largest corpus of Esperanto texts on the internet with over ten million words.
- Explore Chinese culture through the Chinese-Esperantist website Verda Reto!
- Browse a trove of Esperanto songs — the kantaro!
- Check out an original 16-episode soap opera, Pasporto al la tuta mondo!
- Vortprovizo Diskorda, slang dictionary by CodeWeaver based on the r/Esperanto Discord server
- Esperanto Apps by Lycelia, including a dictionary, reader-assist, flashcards, a handful of games, and a fiction section
- Learn NOT to Speak Esperanto, the most famous opinion piece debunking Esperanto's design on the internet